PET-determined prevalence of coronary microvascular dysfunction and different types in a cardio-metabolic risk population

Anita R. Bhandiwad, Ines Valenta, Sudhir Jain, Thomas H. Schindler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Background: The aim was to investigate the prevalence of “classical” (predominantly related to alterations in hyperemic MBFs) and “endogen” (predominantly related to alterations in resting MBF) normal coronary microvascular function (nCMF) or coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) in a clinical population without flow-limiting obstructive CAD. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 239 symptomatic patients with normal pharmacologically-stress and rest myocardial perfusion on 13N-ammonia PET/CT. 13N-ammonia PET/CT concurrently assessed myocardial flow reserve (MFR = MBF stress/MBF rest). Normal nCMF was defined by a MFR of ≥ 2.0, while an abnormal MFR of < 2.0 signified CMD. In addition, patients were subgrouped into classical and endogen type of nCMF and CMD, respectively. Results: In the whole study population, CMD was present in 54% (130/239). The classical type was more prevalent than the endogen type of CMD (65% vs 35%, p ≤ 0.008). The classical type of CMD was paralleled by a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and obesity, while the endogen type of CMD was accompanied by a higher prevalence of arterial hypertension, obesity, and/or morbid obesity. Further, the classical type of nCMF was more frequently observed that the endogen type (74% vs. 26%, p ≤ 0.007). The endogen type of nCMF was related to lower heart rate and/or arterial blood pressures. Conclusions: In this contemporary clinical study population, slightly more than half of symptomatic patients had CMD with predominance of the classical type. These observations emphasize the need for standardized reporting of CMD to gear individualized and/or intensified medical treatment to improve symptoms and/or clinical outcome in these patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101206
JournalIJC Heart and Vasculature
StatePublished - Jun 2023


  • Cardiovascular Risk factors
  • Coronary Artery disease
  • Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction
  • Metabolic Syndrome
  • Myocardial Blood flow
  • Myocardial Flow reserve
  • Obesity
  • Positron Emission Tomography


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