The literature on the relationship between personality traits and the various forms of affective disorder were reviewed. On the basis of this review, it was hypothesized that probands with primary unipolar affective disorder and their relatives would be significantly higher on cyclothymia, as measured by trait A of the 16 PF, and that no other significant correlations between depression and personality traits would be found. Contrary to the hypotheses, depressed probands and their relatives were lower than appropriate controls on cyclothymia. Evidence for the familial transmission of an increased amount of secondary trait QII (adjustment versus anxiety) was found. It was speculated that the spectrum disorder involving subdepressive behavior (QII) and unipolar affective disorder is independently transmitted from the spectrum involving cyclothymia, bipolar I and II, and mania.21 Designs to test these speculations were discussed.