Background: This retrospective UNOS database evaluation analyzes the prevalence of preoperative portal vein thromboses (PVT), and postoperative thromboses leading to graft failure in pediatric patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT). Methods: The evaluation was performed in three age groups: I (0–5), II (6–11), III (12–18) years old. Factors predictive of pre- and postoperative thromboses were analyzed. Results: Between 2000 and 2015, 8982 pediatric LT were performed in the US. Of those, 390 patients had preoperative PVT (4.3%), and 396 (4.4%) had postoperative thromboses. The prevalence of both types of thromboses was less in Group III than in the other two groups (3.20% vs 4.65%, p = 0.007 and 1.73% vs. 5.13%, p < 0.001, respectively). The prevalence of postoperative thromboses was significantly higher in Group I than in the other two groups (5.49% vs. 2.51%, p < 0.001). Preoperative PVT was independently associated with postoperative thromboses (OR = 1.7, p = 0.02). Children less than 5 years of age were more likely to develop postoperative thromboses leading to graft failure (OR = 2.9, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Younger children undergoing LT are prone to pre-and postoperative thrombotic complications. Preoperative PVT at the time of transplantation was independently associated with postoperative thromboses. Perioperative antithrombotic therapy should be considered in pediatric patients undergoing LT.