Background: Guidelines from the Society for Vascular Surgery recommend elective repair in asymptomatic patients with an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) only if their diameter is greater than or equal to 5.5 cm, yet smaller ones are routinely repaired. This study aims to evaluate perioperative outcomes based on aneurysm size at the time of repair. Methods: Male patients who underwent elective endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) or open abdominal aneurysm repair (OAAR) repair of an infrarenal AAA were abstracted from 2011 to 2015 Targeted National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database. Patients with symptoms or with aneurysmal extension into the visceral or iliac vessels were excluded. Outcomes of open versus endovascular repair were reported, with multivariate analyses to identify factors associated with the decision to repair AAA ≤5.4 cm. Results: A total of 2115 (90.9%) patients underwent EVAR, while 213 (9.1%) underwent OAAR. The mean diameter in patients who underwent OAAR was 6.1 cm (interquartile range [IQR]: 5.2-6.1 cm) versus 5.7 cm (IQR: 5.2-6.0 cm) for EVAR. However, in 42.5% of EVAR and 32.8% of OAAR patients, the diameter of the AAA was 5.4 cm or less. The group undergoing repair of AAA ≤5.4 cm was younger compared to the larger AAA group (71.9 vs 73.9 years; P <.0001). Patients older than 80 years were less likely to have a repair of AAA measuring ≤5.4 cm (odds ratio [OR] = 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30-0.65). Additionally, patients who underwent EVAR were more likely to have AAA measuring ≤5.4 cm repaired compared to those who underwent OAAR (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.19-2.21). There were no differences in perioperative morbidity or mortality between the groups. Conclusion: There were no differences in perioperative outcomes after AAA repair, independent of aneurysm diameter. We found a higher likelihood of repairing AAA ≤5.4 cm in younger patients who were more likely to have been repaired with EVAR. Patients older than 80 years were less likely to undergo small AAA repair.