Perioperative Immunonutrition Modulates Inflammatory Response after Radical Cystectomy: Results of a Pilot Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

Jill M. Hamilton-Reeves, Abigail Stanley, Misty D. Bechtel, Thomas M. Yankee, Prabhakar Chalise, Lauren K. Hand, Eugene K. Lee, Woodson Smelser, Moben Mirza, Hadley Wyre, Holly Hull, Susan E. Carlson, Jeffrey M. Holzbeierlein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: Poor preoperative nutritional status is associated with a higher complication rate after radical cystectomy in patients with bladder cancer. Given the short interval between diagnosis and radical cystectomy, we compared the effect of short-term specialized immunonutrition to that of a standard oral nutritional supplement on the acute inflammatory response and arginine status in patients treated with radical cystectomy. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, randomized study in 29 men 14 received specialized immunonutrition and 15 received oral nutritional supplement. Each group drank 3 cartons per day for 5 days before and 5 days after radical cystectomy. The Th1-Th2 balance, plasma interleukin-6 and plasma amino acids were measured at baseline, intraoperatively and on postoperative days 2, 14 and 30. Body composition was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline and on postoperative days 14 and 30. Differences in outcomes were assessed using the generalized linear mixed model. Results: In the specialized immunonutrition group there was a 54.3% average increase in the Th1-Th2 balance according to the tumor necrosis factor-α-to-interleukin-13 ratio from baseline to intraoperative day, representing a shift toward a Th1 response. In the oral nutritional supplement group the Th1-Th2 balance decreased 4.8%. The change in the Th1-Th2 balance between the specialized immunonutrition and oral nutritional supplement groups significantly differed (p <0.027). Plasma interleukin-6 was 42.8% lower in the specialized immunonutrition group compared to the oral nutritional supplement group on postoperative day 2 (p = 0.020). In the specialized immunonutrition group plasma arginine was maintained from baseline to postoperative day 2 and yet the oral nutritional supplement group showed a 26.3% reduction from baseline to postoperative day 2 (p = 0.0003). The change in appendicular muscle loss between the groups was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Th1-to-Th2 ratios, peak interleukin-6 levels and plasma arginine suggest that consuming specialized immunonutrition counteracts the disrupted T-helper balance, lowers the inflammatory response and prevents arginine depletion due to radical cystectomy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)292-301
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Urology
Volume200
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2018

Keywords

  • arginine
  • bladder neoplasms
  • cystectomy
  • dietary supplements
  • inflammation

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