Perioperative complications of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy: Analysis of 886 patients at 5 United States centers

Youssef S. Tanagho, Jihad H. Kaouk, Mohamad E. Allaf, Craig G. Rogers, Michael D. Stifelman, Bartosz F. Kaczmarek, Shahab P. Hillyer, Jeffrey K. Mullins, Yichun Chiu, Sam B. Bhayani

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114 Scopus citations


Objective: To review complications of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) at 5 centers, as classified by the Clavien system. Materials and Methods: A multi-institutional analysis of prospectively maintained databases assessed RAPN complications. From June 2007 to November 2011, 886 patients at 5 United States centers underwent RAPN. Patient demographics, perioperative outcomes, and complications data were collected. Complication severity was classified by Clavien grade. Results: Mean (standard deviation) data were patient age, 59.4 (11.4) years; age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index, 3.0 (1.9); radiographic tumor size, 3.0 (1.6) cm; nephrometry score, 6.9 (2.0); and warm ischemia time, 18.8 (9.0) minutes. Median blood loss was 100 mL (interquartile range, 100-250 mL). Of the 886 patients, intraoperative complications occurred in 23 patients (2.6%) and 139 postoperative complications occurred in 115 patients (13.0%) for a total complication rate of 15.6%. Among the 139 postoperative complications, 43 (30.9%) were classified as Clavien 1, 64 (46.0%) were Clavien 2, 21 (15.1%) were Clavien 3, and 11 (7.9%) were Clavien 4. No complication-related deaths occurred. Intraoperative hemorrhage occurred in 9 patients (1.0%) and postoperative hemorrhage in 51 (5.8%). Forty-one patients (4.6%) required a perioperative blood transfusion, 10 (1.1%) required angioembolization, and 2 (0.2%) required surgical reexploration for postoperative hemorrhage. Urine leaks developed in 10 patients (1.1%): 3 (0.3%) required ureteral stenting, and 2 (0.2%) required percutaneous drainage. Acute postoperative renal insufficiency or renal failure developed in 7 patients (0.8%), 2 of whom required hemodialysis. The RENAL (radius, exophytic/endophytic properties of the tumor, nearness of tumor deepest portion to the collecting system or sinus, anterior/posterior descriptor and the location relative to polar lines) nephrometry scoring system accurately predicted RAPN complication rates. Conclusion: Complication rates in this large multicenter series of RAPN appear to be acceptable and comparable with other nephron-sparing modalities. Most complications (77.0%) are Clavien 1 and 2 and can be managed conservatively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)573-580
Number of pages8
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2013


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