Perinatal risk factors associated with central retinal changes in former preterm children on optical coherence tomography angiography

Alenka Lavric, Spela Markelj, Jianbin Ding, Sarakshi Mahajan, Rupesh Agrawal, Manca Tekavcic Pompe

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Abstract

Purpose: To assess the association between perinatal risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and central retinal structures of former preterm children seen on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: This prospective cohort study included 40 children with a history of preterm birth and 33 healthy full-term children. We documented their birth weight, gestational age, other significant risk factors for ROP development and presence of ROP. Imaging was performed using swept-source OCTA, and quantitative evaluation was performed. Analytic parameters included the area of foveal avascular zone (FAZ), foveal depth (FD), central subfoveal retinal thickness (CSFT) and capillary density index (CDI) of the deep and superficial capillary plexus. Results: Preterm children had significantly smaller FAZ, lower FD and higher CSFT compared to controls (all p < 0.001). Both groups exhibited no differences in total CDI at the superficial (p = 0.969) and deep capillary plexus (p = 0.370). The duration of mechanical ventilation correlated negatively with FAZ and FD but positively with CSFT. The duration of supplemental oxygen treatment correlated negatively with FD. The presence of intraventricular haemorrhage correlated negatively with FAZ and FD but positively with CSFT. Regression analysis found that the duration of mechanical ventilation and the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia were associated with lower FD (p = 0.002 and 0.01, respectively) and higher CSFT (p = 0.002 and 0.028, respectively). Conclusion: Central retinal anomalies were identified in former preterm children using OCTA. Macular changes were associated with several risk factors for ROP development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e122-e127
JournalActa Ophthalmologica
Volume100
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2022

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