Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a severe thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by over-activation of the alternative complement pathway. The etiology of the dysregulated complement system is commonly a genetic variant in one or more complement proteins as identified in ∼ 60%-70% patients. The risk of recurrence after a kidney transplantation is high and depends on the underlying complement abnormality. For a long time, kidney transplantation was contraindicated in these patients because of the high rate of recurrence and subsequent allograft loss. Over the past decade, advancements in the understanding of etiopathogenesis of aHUS and approval of the anti-complement drug, eculizumab, have allowed for successful kidney transplantation in these patients. All patients with ESRD due to aHUS should undergo screening for complement genetic variants. Patients in whom a genetic variant is not identified or in whom a genetic variant of uncertain significance is identified should undergo further testing to determine etiology of disease. This review aims to shed light on the diagnostic and therapeutic considerations in patients with aHUS preceding and following kidney transplantation.
- Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome
- Eculizumab (monoclonal antibody to C5)
- Genetic variants
- Kidney transplantation
- Transplant evaluation