BACKGROUND: Indocyanine green fluoroscopy has been shown to improve anastomotic leak rates in early phase trials. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that the use of fluoroscopy to ensure anastomotic perfusion may decrease anastomotic leak after low anterior resection. DESIGN: We performed a 1:1 randomized controlled parallel study. Recruitment of 450 to 1000 patients was planned over 2 years. SETTINGS: This was a multicenter trial. PATIENTS: Included patients were those undergoing resection defined as anastomosis within 10 cm of the anal verge. INTERVENTION: Patients underwent standard evaluation of tissue perfusion versus standard in conjunction with perfusion evaluation using indocyanine green fluoroscopy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was anastomotic leak, with secondary outcomes of perfusion assessment and the rate of postoperative abscess requiring intervention. RESULTS: This study was concluded early because of decreasing accrual rates. A total of 25 centers recruited 347 patients, of whom 178 were randomly assigned to perfusion and 169 to standard. The groups had comparable tumor-specific and patient-specific demographics. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation was performed in 63.5% of perfusion and 65.7% of standard (p > 0.05). Mean level of anastomosis was 5.2 ± 3.1 cm in perfusion compared with 5.2 ± 3.3 cm in standard (p > 0.05). Sufficient visualization of perfusion was reported in 95.4% of patients in the perfusion group. Postoperative abscess requiring surgical management was reported in 5.7% of perfusion and 4.2% of standard (p = 0.75). Anastomotic leak was reported in 9.0% of perfusion compared with 9.6% of standard (p = 0.37). On multivariate regression analysis, there was no difference in anastomotic leak rates between perfusion and standard (OR = 0.845 (95% CI, 0.375-1.905); p = 0.34). LIMITATIONS: The predetermined sample size to adequately reduce the risk of type II error was not achieved. CONCLUSIONS: Successful visualization of perfusion can be achieved with indocyanine green fluoroscopy. However, no difference in anastomotic leak rates was observed between patients who underwent perfusion assessment versus standard surgical technique. In experienced hands, the addition of routine indocyanine green fluoroscopy to standard practice adds no evident clinical benefit. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B560.
|Translated title of the contribution||Perfusion Assessment in Left-Sided/Low Anterior Resection (PILLAR III): A Randomized, Controlled, Parallel, Multicenter Study Assessing Perfusion Outcomes with PINPOINT Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging in Low Anterior Resection|
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Diseases of the Colon and Rectum|
|State||Accepted/In press - 2021|
- Anastomotic leak
- Colorectal anastomosis
- Indocyanine green