Angiogenesis is a critical element of atherosclerotic plaque progression and culprit in plaque vulnerability. Although neovascular expansion is often considered to be a bystander process required to provide increased blood flow to supply oxygen and nutrients to metabolically active inflammatory cell, the microvascular architecture can be considered as a sensitive integrative biomarker reflecting the activity and vulnerability of the plaque. Angiogenesis is closely associated with intraplaque hemorrhage, macrophage activity, and metalloproteinase and elastase activity. Neovascularization progresses from the adventitia in early plaque formation with time to the sub-intimal aspects of the plaque proper, where the erosion of the plaque matrix allows penetration of fragile endothelial tubes but may also weaken the foundation of thin fibrous caps. The combination of accelerating sub-intimal inflammation and external blood shear forces on the intimal surface can lead to plaque rupture and all of its sequelae. This chapter discusses the development of a perfluorocarbon-based nanotechnology for molecular imaging of angiogenesis and to delivery anti-angiogenesis treatment as a means of stabilizing plaque vulnerability.
|Title of host publication||Nanotechnology in Modern Medical Imaging and Interventions|
|Publisher||Nova Science Publishers, Inc.|
|Number of pages||31|
|State||Published - 2013|
- Drug delivery
- Molecular imaging