Peptide-based nanoparticles (PBN) for nucleotide complexation and targeting of extrahepatic diseases are gaining recognition as potent pharmaceutical vehicles for fine-tuned control of protein production (up- and/or down-regulation) and for gene delivery. Herein, we review the principles and mechanisms underpinning self-assembled formation of PBN, cellular uptake, endosomal release, and delivery to extrahepatic disease sites after systemic administration. Selected examples of PBN that have demonstrated recent proof of concept in disease models in vivo are summarized to offer the reader a comparative view of the field and the possibilities for clinical application.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9455
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number11
StatePublished - Jun 2023


  • RNA
  • endosomal escape
  • extrahepatic delivery
  • mRNA
  • nanoparticles
  • nucleic acids
  • peptide polyplexes
  • peptide-based nanoparticles
  • siRNA


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