Purpose: Infusional chemotherapy is efficacious in patients with AIDS-related lymphoma, but it may be difficult to administer. We studied standard agents with rituximab plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (DR-COP) in an attempt to provide a more practical approach to therapy while ascertaining rates of response, potential infectious complications, and prognostic role of biologic markers. Patients and Methods: We conducted a prospective, multi-institutional phase II trial, employing (day 1) pegylated liposomal doxorubicin 40 mg/m2, rituximab 375 mg/m2, cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m2, vincristine 1.4 mg/m2 (not > 2 mg), and prednisone 100 mg orally on days 1 through 5, with concomitant antiretroviral therapy. Results: In 40 evaluable patients, median CD4 cells was 114/μL (range, 5 to 1,026/μL), and median HIV-1 viral load (VL) was 25,000 copies/mL. High or intermediate/high age-adjusted International Prognostic Index was present in 28%. Overall response was 67.5%, with complete remission in 47.5% (95% CI, 31.5 to 63.9). Of 19 complete responders, 84% had extranodal disease, 47% had CD4 < 100/μL, and 47% had VL > 50,000 copies/mL; one relapsed. With 25.5-month median follow-up, 62% (95% CI, 44 to 75) of patients remain alive. Sixteen patients (40%) experienced 22 infections, with grade 4 in only two (5%). No patient died as a result of infection during treatment; one had opportunistic infection. Conclusion: Profound immunodeficiency and high HIV-1 viral load do not preclude attainment of complete response after DR-COP with highly active antiretroviral therapy. The regimen is tolerable, and use of rituximab was not associated with death as a result of infection during treatment. This approach may be useful in patients in whom the more intensive infusional regimens are impractical.