Pediatric vasculitis: Recognizing multisystemic manifestations at body imaging

Geetika Khanna, Kiran Sargar, Kevin W. Baszis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations

Abstract

Pediatric vasculitides are multisystem diseases that can be diagnostic challenges because of variable clinical manifestations. The clinical manifestation is determined by the size of the affected vessels, organs involved, extent of vascular injury, and underlying pathologic characteristics. Henoch-Schönlein purpura and Kawasaki disease are the two most common subtypes of pediatric vasculitis. Diagnosis of pediatric vasculitis can be difficult, and the outcome can be serious or fatal in the absence of timely intervention. Imaging plays a central role in establishing the diagnosis of vasculitis involving large- and medium-sized vessels, visualizing its vascular and extravascular manifestations, and monitoring the disease course and response to treatment. Although imaging cannot depict the vessel changes of small-vessel vasculitis directly, it can be used to detect tissue damage resulting from vessel inflammation. This article discusses the classification and clinical features of the major pediatric vasculitides. The imaging approach to and nonneurologic findings of major pediatric vasculitis subtypes are reviewed for the pediatric body imager.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)849-865
Number of pages17
JournalRadiographics
Volume35
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2015

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