Five children underwent lung transplantation for endstage pulmonary hypertension and respiratory insufficiency associated with congenital heart disease. One (17 mo) had pulmonary hypertension with a patent ductus arteriosus and required two periods of preoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation before successful bilateral sequential lung transplantation. One (21 mo) required bilateral lung transplantation for pulmonary hypertension and bronchopulmonary dysplasia associated with iatrogenic injury to the left pulmonary artery. This child also had patent ductus arteriosus ligation and preoperative catheter closure of an atrial septal defect. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was required for early postoperative pulmonary support. One child underwent right single-lung transplantation and closure of an atrial septal defect for pulmonary hypertension. Two patients had single-lung transplantation for Eisenmenger's syndrome: 1 with muscular inlet ventricular septal defect closure, atrial septal defect closure, and right single-lung transplantation; 1 with ventricular septal defect closure, patent ductus arteriosus ligation, right ventricular outflow tract patch repair, and single-lung transplantation. All patients survived operation, with one late death (lymphoproliferative disease). The 4 survivors are all ambulatory without oxygen and have evidence of normal pulmonary artery pressure 9 to 12 months after transplantation.