Purpose: To determine how well patients understand the hierarchy of a teaching hospital, what factors influence patient knowledge, and how patients feel about their role in training physicians. Design: Prospective cross-sectional survey. Participants: A total of 312 patients attending 1 of 3 ophthalmology clinics at the Kresge Eye Institute in July 2006. Methods: Survey of knowledge about the training and responsibilities of medical students, residents, and attending physicians was conducted, as well as subjective evaluation regarding patient comfort with treatment by physicians in training. Knowledge Score was correlated with subjective Comfort Score and demographics using analysis of variance. Main Outcome Measures: Knowledge Score and subjective Comfort Score. Results: A total of 312 surveys were completed. Some 56% of questions were answered correctly. Higher education was the only significant factor for increased Knowledge Score (P<0.001). Respondents with a higher Knowledge Score had a correspondingly higher Comfort Score (P = 0.004) and are significantly more comfortable with treatment provided by physicians in training (residents). Clinic site (P = 0.002) and increasing age (P = 0.02) are also significant independent factors for increased comfort with treatment provided by physicians in training. Conclusions: Patients have moderate knowledge of the training and hierarchy of medical students, residents, and attending physicians. Increased patient knowledge is a significant independent factor for increased patient comfort with treatment by physicians in training. Clinic site and increased age are also significant factors for comfort with treatment by physicians in training. Financial Disclosure(s): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.