In this review the acute and chronic effects of alcohol on several neuroendocrine systems have been considered. Alcohol has significant effects on virtually every neuroendocrine system, and there has been a great deal of recent progress made in defining the mechanisms by which alcohol exerts its effects. These findings have been discussed as well as the recent burst of research activity in examining the clinical significance of alcohol-induced endocrine disturbances. Thus far, a number of studies have implicated alterations in endocrine state in the acute pharmacological effects of alcohol and and several consequences associated with its long-term use, including the development of tolerance, physical dependence and a number of biomedical complications. Finally, the reversibility and possible treatment of alcohol-induced endocrine disturbances have been considered.