Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in children and young adults. The standard-of-care curative treatment for osteosarcoma utilizes doxorubicin, cisplatin, and high-dose methotrexate, a standard that has not changed in more than 40 years. The development of patient-specific therapies requires an in-depth understanding of the unique genetics and biology of the tumor. Here, we discuss the role of normal bone biology in osteosarcomagenesis, highlighting the factors that drive normal osteoblast production, as well as abnormal osteosarcoma development. We then describe the pathology and current standard of care of osteosarcoma. Given the complex heterogeneity of osteosarcoma tumors, we explore the development of novel therapeutics for oste-osarcoma that encompass a series of molecular targets. This analysis of pathogenic mechanisms will shed light on promising avenues for future therapeutic research in osteosarcoma.
- Mesenchymal stem cell