Objective: To validate the use of passive functional mapping using electrocorticographic (ECoG) broadband gamma signals for identifying receptive language cortex. Methods: We mapped language function in 23 patients using ECoG and using electrical cortical stimulation (ECS) in a subset of 15 subjects. Results: The qualitative comparison between cortical sites identified by ECoG and ECS show a high concordance. A quantitative comparison indicates a high level of sensitivity (95%) and a lower level of specificity (59%). Detailed analysis reveals that 82% of all cortical sites identified by ECoG were within one contact of a site identified by ECS. Conclusions: These results show that passive functional mapping reliably localizes receptive language areas, and that there is a substantial concordance between the ECoG- and ECS-based methods. They also point to a more refined understanding of the differences between ECoG- and ECS-based mappings. This refined understanding helps to clarify the instances in which the two methods disagree and can explain why neurosurgical practice has established the concept of a “safety margin.” Significance: Passive functional mapping using ECoG signals provides a fast, robust, and reliable method for identifying receptive language areas without many of the risks and limitations associated with ECS.
- Functional mapping
- Receptive language