Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease that affects between 1 and 2 percent of individuals over 65 years of age and 3-5 percent of those aged 85 or older (Fahn, 2003). PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer’s disease. Currently, approximately six million people are affected by PD worldwide (Viartis, 2008). PD was originally attributed to neuronal loss within the substantia nigra pars compacta, and a concomitant loss of dopamine. PD is now thought to be a multi-system disorder that involves not only the dopaminergic system, but other neurotransmitter systems, whose role may become more prominent as the disease progresses (Perry et al., 1991). There are four cardinal features of PD: rest tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability, all of which are motor symptoms. However, PD also may include any combination of a myriad of non-motor symptoms including autonomic disruptions, orthostatic hypotension, sweating dysfunction, pain, sensory symptoms, cognitive changes, sleep disorders, fatigue, loss of motivation, anxiety and depression (Fahn, 2003). Both motor and non-motor aspects of PD may impact upon the ability of those with PD to participate in exercise and/or the effects that exercise might have on those with PD.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationExercise and Chronic Disease
Subtitle of host publicationAn Evidence-Based Approach
PublisherTaylor and Francis
Number of pages17
ISBN (Electronic)9781135999063
ISBN (Print)9780415498609
StatePublished - Jan 1 2011


Dive into the research topics of 'Parkinson disease'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this