Objective: This study examines the relationship between parental substance use consequences and adolescent psychological problems by gender of the adolescent and gender of the parent. Method: The data in this study were collected between 1989 and 1994 from 173 (116 proband and 57 control) families participating in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) project. All 173 adolescents (89 [51%] boys) completed the Structured Assessment Record of Alcoholic Homes (SARAH) to assess parental substance use consequences. In addition, the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism for Adolescents (C-SSAGA-A) was administered to all adolescents to obtain clinical psychiatric diagnoses. Results: Concern about mother's substance use was significantly associated with adolescent alcohol dependence and major depressive disorder. In addition, concern about father's substance use was significantly related to adolescent alcohol dependence. Avoidance of mother when she was drinking or using drugs and maternal anger when drinking or using drugs also was significantly associated with adolescent alcohol dependence, conduct disorder and major depressive disorder. In contrast, avoidance of father and paternal anger when drinking or using drugs was not related to any of the adolescent diagnoses. Conclusions: These results suggest that maternal substance use consequences may be more closely linked to adolescent psychological adjustment than are paternal substance use consequences.