Parental anxiety among children undergoing cardiac catheterisation

Daisuke Kobayashi, Daniel R. Turner, Thomas J. Forbes, Sanjeev Aggarwal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Background Parents may experience anxiety and stress when their children undergo cardiac catheterisation. The goal of this study was to assess the level of anxiety in parents of children undergoing cardiac catheterisation and to identify factors that were associated with level of anxiety. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of parents of children who underwent cardiac catheterisation. Anxiety levels were measured using a validated self-report questionnaire - State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, which generates state anxiety scores on the current state of anxiety and trait anxiety scores on the stable aspects of anxiety proneness. One sample t-test was used to compare the data with normative data. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the factors associated with the state score. Results A total of 113 parents completed the survey. The mean age of parents was 34.0±7.7 years and the mean age of children undergoing catheterisation was 6.7±5.7 years. Compared with normative data, mean state score was significantly higher in our cohort (p<0.05) despite no difference in the trait score. Final multivariate model showed that the state score was significantly associated with child age group (<1 year [coefficient β 7.2] and 10-18 years [6.3], compared to 1 to <10 years of age [reference]) and history of previous catheterisation (-5.2) (p<0.05). Conclusions Concurrent state anxiety level was high among parents of children undergoing cardiac catheterisation, whereas trait anxiety level was not. Higher anxiety was experienced by parents of infants and adolescents without a history of previous catheterisation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)315-321
Number of pages7
JournalCardiology in the young
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2018


  • cardiac catheterisation
  • children
  • Parental anxiety
  • State-Trait anxiety inventory


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