The phagocytic NADPH-oxidase is a multiprotein system activated during the inflammatory response to produce superoxide anion (O2 -), which is the substrate for formation of additional reactive oxygen species (ROS). The importance of this system for innate immunity is established by chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a primary immunodeficiency caused by defects in the NADPH oxidase. In this review, we present and discuss recent knowledge about p40phox, the last NADPH oxidase component to be identified. Furthermore, its interaction with cellular pathways outside of the NADPH oxidase is discussed. Described in this review is evidence that p40 phox participates in NADPH oxidase dynamics within cells, what is known about its role in the oxidase, the possibility that p40phox participates in non-NADPH oxidase processes in phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells and whether p40phox could mediate a similar function in other NADPH oxidases. An improved understanding of p40phox should provide new insights about NADPH oxidase, the physiology of phagocytic cells and the innate immune system.
- Chronic granulomatous disease
- NADPH oxidase
- Phagocytic cells
- Respiratory burst