Overview of COVID-19 Infection, Treatment, and Prevention in Children

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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel respiratory virus—severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)—was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization on 11 March 2020. Since then, substantial gains have been made in our understanding of COVID-19 epidemiology, disease presentation, and management. While children tend to have less severe disease courses compared to adults, children can still develop severe COVID-19 infections, particularly in those with underlying medical conditions such as obesity, chronic lung disease, or prematurity. In addition, children are at risk of severe complications of COVID-19 infection, such as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) or long COVID. The case definitions of MIS-C and long COVID have continued to evolve with the increased understanding of these new entities; however, improved methods of diagnosis and determination of the optimal management are still needed. Furthermore, with the continued circulation of SARS-CoV-2 variants, there remains a need for clinicians to remain up-to-date on the latest treatment and prevention options. The purpose of this review is to provide an evidence-based review of what we have learned about COVID-19 in children since the start of the pandemic and how best to counsel children and their families on the best methods of prevention.

Original languageEnglish
Article number424
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 2024


  • COVID-19
  • COVID-19 vaccines
  • MIS-C
  • long COVID
  • pediatrics


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