The maturation of megakaryocytes in vivo requires polyploidization or repeated duplication of DNA without cytokinesis. As DNA replication and cytokinesis are tightly regulated in somatic cells by cyclins and cyclin- dependent kinases, we sought to determine the pattern of cyclin gene expression in cells that undergo megakaryocytic differentiation and polyploidization. The Dami megakaryocytic cell line differentiates and increases ploidy in response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulation in vitro. We used Northern blotting to analyze mRNA levels of cyclins A, B, C, D1, and E in PMA-induced Dami cells and found that cyclin D1 mRNA levels increased dramatically (18-fold). Similar increases in cyclin D1 mRNA were obtained for other cell lines (HEL and K562) with megakaryocytic properties, but not in HeLa cells. The increase in cyclin D1 was confirmed by Western immunoblotting of PMA-treated Dami cells. This finding suggested that cyclin D1 might participate in megakaryocyte differentiation by promoting endomitosis and/or inhibiting cell division. To address these possibilities, we constructed two stable Zn+2-inducible, cyclin D1-overexpressing Dami cell lines. Cyclin D1 expression alone was not sufficient to induce polyploidy, but in conjunction with PMA-induced differentiation, polyploidization was slightly enhanced. However, unlike other cell systems, cyclin D1 overexpression caused cessation of cell growth. Although the mechanism by which cyclin D1 may affect megakaryocyte differentiation is not clear, these data demonstrate that cyclin D1 is upregulated in differentiating megakaryocytic cells and may contribute to differentiation by arresting cell proliferation.
|Number of pages||11|
|State||Published - Jul 1 1995|