Outcomes of Innominate Artery Revascularization Through Endovascular, Hybrid, or Open Approach

Nikolaos Zacharias, Philip P. Goodney, Joseph P. DeSimone, David H. Stone, Zachary J. Wanken, Bjoern D. Suckow, Jesse A. Columbo, Richard J. Powell

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Abstract

Background: Atherosclerotic disease of the innominate artery (IA) is rare and can lead to cerebral, upper extremity, and vertebral steal symptoms. Nonocclusive lesions can be treated with endovascular interventions, often with a hybrid approach while performing a right carotid endarterectomy (RCEA). Calcified IA lesions have a high risk of embolization to bilateral cerebral hemispheres. Occlusive lesions may require treatment through a median sternotomy and bypass. The purpose of our study is to review our short-term and long-term outcomes of IA revascularization. Methods: Our operative database was used to identify patients who underwent IA revascularization between January 1998 and December 2018. Patients who underwent innominate artery stenting (IAS), combined with RCEA and IAS as well as aortoinnominate bypass (AIB), were identified. Our primary end points were freedom from neurologic event, all-cause mortality, and need for reintervention. Results: Thirty-three patients (18 females [55%]) who underwent IA revascularization were identified. Average age was 67 ± 8 years, and mean clinical follow-up was 51 ± 21 months. Most patients (30 [91%]) were on a statin and antiplatelet therapy. Twenty-one patients (64%) were symptomatic. Twelve patients (36%) were asymptomatic and underwent combined RCEA with retrograde IAS for critical right carotid stenosis and IA stenosis. Preoperative imaging included a carotid duplex and computed tomography angiography. Eighteen patients (55%) underwent RCEA + IAS, 11 patients (33%) underwent isolated IAS, and 4 patients (12%) underwent AIB. In our attempt to protect bilateral hemispheres during IAS for heavily calcified lesions, we used right common carotid artery (CCA) clamping although open exposure and left CCA embolic protection filter was placed through transfemoral approach. Patients who underwent AIB had chronic heavily calcified IA occlusions or occluded IA stents with failed endovascular interventions. Perioperative stroke rate was 3%, involving 1 patient who developed reperfusion syndrome after RCEA + IAS. Perioperative mortality was 0%. Long-term stroke rate was 0%, and long-term mortality was 15% (5 of 33) because of cardiac disease. Overall restenosis rate was 9%, involving 3 patients who required secondary interventions for IA in-stent restenosis. Conclusions: IA interventions through a hybrid approach or an open approach are safe, with acceptable perioperative stroke and mortality rates. Long-term patency of these interventions is acceptable. Bilateral cerebral embolic protection can be accomplished by clamping the right CCA through an open exposure and placing a filter in the left CCA through a transfemoral approach. Patients undergoing IAS appear to have a higher rate of restenosis compared with AIB, and therefore, close follow-up with noninvasive imaging is recommended.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)190-196
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of Vascular Surgery
Volume69
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2020

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