Outcomes in accommodative esotropia with a high AC/A ratio

Margaret M. Reynolds, Nancy N. Diehl, Brian G. Mohney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Purpose: The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to report the outcomes of high AC/A ratio accommodative esotropia (AET) among children. Methods: The medical records of all children <19 years diagnosed with accommodative esotropia and a high AC/A ratio while residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from January 1, 1975, through December 31, 2004, were retrospectively reviewed. Results: A total of 512 patients were diagnosed with AET during the 30-year study period, of which 395 (77.1%) had fully accommodative ET, 117 (22.8%) had partially accommodative ET and 106 (20.5%) had a high AC/A ratio. Of the 93 (87.7 %) high AC/A patients managed with bifocals, 50 (53.8 %) discontinued their use after a mean of 58.7 (range: 5.6–229) months. The Kaplan–Meier rate of discontinuing bifocals was 24.5% at 3 years, 36.4% at 5 years, and 61.4% at 10 years. Patients who discontinued bifocals were more likely to have had strabismus surgery (44% vs 18.6%, p = 0.009) than those who did not discontinue bifocals. The high AC/A patients managed with bifocals achieved similar stereoacuity outcomes to those who did not wear bifocals (p = 0.65) and were no more likely to require surgery (p = 0.13). Conclusion: Among this cohort of children with accommodative esotropia and a high AC/A ratio, bifocal use was discontinued in the majority of children within 10 years, and more commonly among those who underwent strabismus surgery. The use of bifocals was not associated with a higher likelihood of undergoing surgery or enhanced stereopsis compared to those who did not use them.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3342-3348
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Ophthalmology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2021


  • Strabismus surgery/complications
  • epidemiology/biostatistics
  • eso and exo deviations
  • eye movement disorders
  • lens/cataract
  • special forms (Duane, CPEO, MG, others)
  • strabismus


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