Severe chronic neutropenia (SCN), defined as blood neutrophils <0.5 × 109/L for >3 months, is an uncommon hematological condition associated with recurrent and severe bacterial infections. After short-term clinical trials showed the benefits of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment for SCN, SCNIR (Severe Chronic Neutropenia International Registry) opened to determine the long-term benefits and safety of this treatment. This report summarizes findings from more than 16 000 patient-years of prospective observations for patients with congenital and acquired SCN. We observed that adverse outcomes depend on the underlying etiology. Myelodysplasia (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) occur infrequently and largely in patients with congenital neutropenias. Having cyclic or chronic autoimmune/ idiopathic neutropenia portends a favorable prognosis. A few patients with idiopathic neutropenia evolve to develop lymphoid malignancies, but they do not appear to be at increased risk of myeloid malignancies, even with very long-term G-CSF therapy. Progression to systemic autoimmune diseases, bone marrow (BM) failure, aplastic anemia, or nonmyeloid malignancies are not expected consequences of SCN or treatment with G-CSF.