Outcome measures for Alzheimer's disease: A global inter-societal Delphi consensus

Tim S. Ellison, Stefano F. Cappa, Dawne Garrett, Jean Georges, Takeshi Iwatsubo, Joel H. Kramer, Maryna Lehmann, Constantine Lyketsos, Andrea B. Maier, Jennifer Merrilees, John C. Morris, Sharon L. Naismith, Flavio Nobili, Marco Pahor, Dimity Pond, Louise Robinson, Pinar Soysal, Mathieu Vandenbulcke, Christopher J. Weber, Pieter Jelle VisserMichael Weiner, Giovanni B. Frisoni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: We aim to provide guidance on outcomes and measures for use in patients with Alzheimer's clinical syndrome. Methods: A consensus group of 20 voting members nominated by 10 professional societies, and a non-voting chair, used a Delphi approach and modified GRADE criteria. Results: Consensus was reached on priority outcomes (n = 66), measures (n = 49) and statements (n = 37) across nine domains. A number of outcomes and measurement instruments were ranked for: Cognitive abilities; Functional abilities/dependency; Behavioural and neuropsychiatric symptoms; Patient quality of life (QoL); Caregiver QoL; Healthcare and treatment-related outcomes; Medical investigations; Disease-related life events; and Global outcomes. Discussion: This work provides indications on the domains and ideal pertinent measurement instruments that clinicians may wish to use to follow patients with cognitive impairment. More work is needed to develop instruments that are more feasible in the context of the constraints of clinical routine.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2707-2729
Number of pages23
JournalAlzheimer's and Dementia
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2023


  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Delphi
  • consensus
  • dementia
  • measures
  • outcomes


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