Outcome implications of benzodiazepine and opioid co-prescription in kidney transplant recipients

Ngan N. Lam, Mark A. Schnitzler, David A. Axelrod, Huiling Xiao, Mara McAdams-DeMarco, Dorry L. Segev, Allan B. Massie, Vikas R. Dharnidharka, Abhijit S. Naik, Abimereki D. Muzaale, Gregory P. Hess, Bertram L. Kasiske, Krista L. Lentine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The outcomes of benzodiazepine and opioid co-prescription are not well-defined in transplant populations. We examined linked national transplant registry and pharmaceutical records to characterize benzodiazepine and opioid use in the years before and after transplant in large US cohort of kidney transplant recipients (2007-2016; N = 98 620), and associations (adjusted hazard ratio, LCLaHRUCL) with death and graft failure. Among the cohort, 15.6% filled benzodiazepine prescriptions in the year before transplant, and 14.0% filled benzodiazepine prescriptions in the year after transplant (short-acting, 9.5%; long-acting, 3.3%; both 1.1%). Use of short-acting benzodiazepines in the year before transplant was associated with a 22% increased risk of death in the year after transplant (aHR, 1.081.221.38), while use of all classes in the year after transplant was associated with increased risk of death from '1 to 5 years (aHR: short-acting 1.291.391.48; long-acting 1.121.251.40; both 1.461.742.07). Recipients who used benzodiazepines were also more likely to fill opioid prescriptions. Recipients who filled both classes of benzodiazepine and the highest level of opioids had a 2.9-fold increased risk of death compared to recipients who did not use either. Co-prescription of benzodiazepines and opioids in kidney transplant recipients is associated with increased mortality. Ongoing research is needed to understand mechanisms of risk relationships.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere14005
JournalClinical Transplantation
Volume34
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2020

Keywords

  • benzodiazepines
  • kidney transplantation
  • opioids
  • registries
  • risk factors

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