Outbreak of adverse reactions associated with contaminated heparin

David B. Blossom, Alexander J. Kallen, Priti R. Patel, Alexis Elward, Luke Robinson, Ganpan Gao, Robert Langer, Kiran M. Perkins, Jennifer L. Jaeger, Katie M. Kurkjian, Marilyn Jones, Sarah F. Schillie, Nadine Shehab, Daniel Ketterer, Ganesh Venkataraman, Takashi Kei Kishimoto, Zachary Shriver, Ann W. McMahon, K. Frank Austen, Steven KozlowskiArjun Srinivasan, George Turabelidze, Carolyn V. Gould, Matthew J. Arduino, Ram Sasisekharan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

238 Scopus citations


Background: In January 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began a nationwide investigation of severe adverse reactions that were first detected in a single hemodialysis facility. Preliminary findings suggested that heparin was a possible cause of the reactions. Methods: Information on clinical manifestations and on exposure was collected for patients who had signs and symptoms that were consistent with an allergic-type reaction after November 1, 2007. Twenty-one dialysis facilities that reported reactions and 23 facilities that reported no reactions were included in a case-control study to identify facility-level risk factors. Unopened heparin vials from facilities that reported reactions were tested for contaminants. Results: A total of 152 adverse reactions associated with heparin were identified in 113 patients from 13 states from November 19, 2007, through January 31, 2008. The use of heparin manufactured by Baxter Healthcare was the factor most strongly associated with reactions (present in 100.0% of case facilities vs. 4.3% of control facilities, P<0.001). Vials of heparin manufactured by Baxter from facilities that reported reactions contained a contaminant identified as oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS). Adverse reactions to the OSCS-contaminated heparin were often characterized by hypotension, nausea, and shortness of breath occurring within 30 minutes after administration. Of 130 reactions for which information on the heparin lot was available, 128 (98.5%) occurred in a facility that had OSCS-contaminated heparin on the premises. Of 54 reactions for which the lot number of administered heparin was known, 52 (96.3%) occurred after the administration of OSCS-contaminated heparin. Conclusions: Heparin contaminated with OSCS was epidemiologically linked to adverse reactions in this nationwide outbreak. The reported clinical features of many of the cases further support the conclusion that contamination of heparin with OSCS was the cause of the outbreak.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2674-2684
Number of pages11
JournalNew England Journal of Medicine
Issue number25
StatePublished - Dec 18 2008


Dive into the research topics of 'Outbreak of adverse reactions associated with contaminated heparin'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this