Organophosphate Antidote Auto-Injectors vs. Traditional Administration: A Time Motion Study

Terri Rebmann, Bruce W. Clements, Jeffrey A. Bailey, R. Gregory Evans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

Organophosphates may be used as weapons in chemical attacks on civilian or military populations. Antidotes are available to counter the effects of organophosphates, but they must be administered shortly after exposure. Timing required to administer organophosphate antidotes using traditional equipment vs. auto-injectors has not been studied. This study is intended to quantify and compare the time required to administer organophosphate antidotes using traditional equipment vs. auto-injectors in different treatment conditions. The study was a randomized, un-blinded design. There were 62 participants assigned to one of three groups: Mark I, ATNAA (antidote treatment nerve agent auto-injector), and traditional needle/syringe; however, the results from only 56 participants could be analyzed. Injection trials were videotaped. Subjects also completed a 14-item survey containing demographic questions, perceived ease of injection, receipt of prior training, and preferred training format for organophosphate treatment. Injection time differentials were compared using one-way analysis of variance; post hoc evaluation was performed using the Scheffe test with Bonferroni correction. Fifty-six subjects completed this study. The ATNAA required less time to administer than the Mark I or traditional needle/syringe devices (p < .001). There was no difference in time to administer the Mark I auto-injectors vs. a traditional needle/syringe. There were no differences between injection time and occupation, receipt of prior training, wearing of personal protective equipment, or perceived ease of injection device use. The use of auto-injectors shortens response time for administering organophosphate antidote treatment. An ATNAA auto-injector can be administered in less than half the time it takes to administer a single injection using a needle and syringe or two injections using a Mark I. Mark I can be administered in approximately the same amount of time it takes to administer a single injection using a needle and syringe. The difference between injection time for the ATNAA and needle and syringe would have been even larger if two injections were given with the needle and syringe. The wearing or absence of personal protective equipment does not affect injection time.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)139-143
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Emergency Medicine
Volume37
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2009

Keywords

  • antidotes
  • auto injector
  • chemical terrorism
  • time and motion studies

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