Spontaneous infra-slow (<0.1 Hz) fluctuations in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals are temporally correlated within large-scale functional brain networks, motivating their use for mapping systems-level brain organization. However, recent electrophysiological and hemodynamic evidence suggest state-dependent propagation of infra-slow fluctuations, implying a functional role for ongoing infra-slow activity. Crucially, the study of infra-slow temporal lag structure has thus far been limited to large groups, as analyzing propagation delays requires extensive data averaging to overcome sampling variability. Here, we use resting-state fMRI data from 11 extensively-sampled individuals to characterize lag structure at the individual level. In addition to stable individual-specific features, we find spatiotemporal topographies in each subject similar to the group average. Notably, we find a set of early regions that are common to all individuals, are preferentially positioned proximal to multiple functional networks, and overlap with brain regions known to respond to diverse behavioral tasks - altogether consistent with a hypothesized ability to broadly influence cortical excitability. Our findings suggest that, like correlation structure, temporal lag structure is a fundamental organizational property of resting-state infra-slow activity.
- functional connectivity
- resting-state fMRI