Summary Tumors are typically sequenced to depths of 75x-100x (exome) or 30x-50x (whole genome). We demonstrate that current sequencing paradigms are inadequate for tumors that are impure, aneuploid, or clonally heterogeneous. To reassess optimal sequencing strategies, we performed ultra-deep (up to ∼312x) whole genome sequencing and exome capture (up to ∼433x) of a primary acute myeloid leukemia, its subsequent relapse, and a matched normal skin sample. We tested multiple alignment and variant calling algorithms and validated ∼200,000 putative SNVs by sequencing them to depths of ∼1,000x. Additional targeted sequencing provided over 10,000x coverage and ddPCR assays provided up to ∼250,000x sampling of selected sites. We evaluated the effects of different library generation approaches, depth of sequencing, and analysis strategies on the ability to effectively characterize a complex tumor. This dataset, representing the most comprehensively sequenced tumor described to date, will serve as an invaluable community resource (dbGaP: phs000159).