Cellular imaging of human tissues remains an important advance for many clinical applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT). Imaging cells with traditional OCT systems has not been possible due to the limited transverse resolution of such techniques. Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) refers to OCT methods that achieve high transverse resolution to visualize cells and subcellular features. This chapter provides a comprehensive discussion of the rationale for cellular imaging in human tissues as well as a review of the key technological advances required to achieve it. Time domain and Fourier domain OCM approaches are described with an emphasis on state of the art system designs, including miniaturized endoscopic imaging probes. Clinical applications are discussed and multiple examples of cellular imaging in human tissues are provided.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationOptical Coherence Tomography
Subtitle of host publicationTechnology and Applications, Second Edition
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages47
ISBN (Electronic)9783319064192
ISBN (Print)9783319064185
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015


  • Cellular imaging
  • Confocal microscopy
  • Endoscopy
  • Femtosecond laser
  • Optical coherence microscopy


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