Background: Outcomes after lung retransplantation (LRT) remain inferior compared with primary lung transplantation (PLT). This study examined the impact of center volume on 1-year survival after LRT. Methods: Using the United Network for Organ Sharing database, the study abstracted patients undergoing PLT and LRT between January 2006 and December 2017, excluding combined heart-lung transplants and multiple retransplants. One-year survival rates after PLT and LRT were compared using propensity score matching. In the LRT cohort, multivariable Cox models with and without time-dependent coefficients were fitted to examine association between transplant center volume and 1-year survival. Center volume was categorized on the basis of inspection of restricted cubic splines. Results: A total of 20,675 recipients (PLT 19,853 [96.0%] vs LRT 822 [4.0%]) were included. One-year survival was lower for LRT recipients in the matched cohort (PLT 84.8% vs LRT 76.7%). There was steady improvement in 1-year survival after LRT (2006 to 2009 72.1% vs 2010 to 2013 76.6% vs 2014 to 2017 80.1%). Higher center volume was associated with better 1-year survival after LRT. This survival difference was noted in the initial 30 days after transplantation (intermediate vs low volume hazard ratio, 0.282 [95% confidence interval, 0.151 to 0.526]; high vs low volume hazard ratio, 0.406 [95% confidence interval, 0.224 to 0.737]), but it became insignificant after 30 days. Conclusions: Superior 1-year survival after LRT at higher-volume centers is predominantly the result of better 30-day outcomes. This finding suggests that LRT candidates may be referred to higher-volume centers for surgery.