Purpose: The medical trainee perspective regarding the prior authorization process has not been previously assessed. Here we evaluate the perceptions of radiation and medical oncology trainees regarding the prior authorization process and its effect on their training and patient care. Methods and Materials: A 12-question, nonincentivized, electronic national survey of radiation and medical oncology trainees at all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education accredited oncology programs was conducted. Participation, perspectives, and experiences with the prior authorization process were assessed by Likert scale, free response, and multiple response selection. Results: Between January and March of 2019, the survey was distributed to 1505 trainees at 76 institutions with responses from 174/616 radiation (28.2%) and 139/889 medical oncology trainees (15.6%). The majority (69.2%) reported participating in the prior authorization process (radiation: 78.2% vs medical: 57.6%; P <.01). Most trainees (71%) reported concern for decline in the quality of patient care due to the prior authorization process. The majority of trainees (77.1%) reported decreased enthusiasm for work and choice of profession, with a higher incidence in medical oncology trainees (83.1% vs 73.7%, P =.04). The most commonly recommended modifications by trainees included that the insurance reviewer be in the same specialty as the ordering provider (87.7%), providers be compensated for participation (82.7%), and turnaround time be more rapid (74.3%). Conclusions: These data indicate that trainees in US oncology programs are active participants in the prior authorization process and report that prior authorization approvals negatively influence their medical training and the quality of patient care. Additional efforts to revise the insurance approval process are warranted.