Oncologic Safety and Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy

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Abstract

Background: Nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) is an alternative to skin-sparing mastectomy in appropriately selected patients. The aim of this study was to review our experience with NSM and to evaluate for oncologic safety. Study design: Patients who underwent NSM at our institution from September 2008 through August 2017 were identified after IRB approval. Data included patient age, tobacco use, tumor size, hormone receptor status, lymph node status, radiation and chemotherapy use, incision type, and reconstruction type. Statistical analyses were performed using ANOVA and chi-square tests. Results: There were 322 patients who underwent 588 NSM (83% bilateral, 17% unilateral), including 399 (68%) for malignancy (Stage 0 [27%], I [44%], II [25%] and III [4%]). The overall rate of wound complication was 18.9%. Tobacco use increased complication (37.5% vs 16.3%, p < 0.001), as did adjuvant radiation therapy (31.4% vs 17.4%, p = 0.014). Patients with lymph node involvement and larger tumor size had a higher rate of complication (31.3% vs 17.2%, p = 0.016). Patients undergoing circumareolar incisions had a higher rate of complication than those undergoing lateral radial, inframammary fold, or curvilinear incisions (43.5% vs 17.4% vs 17.4% vs 14.3%, respectively, p = 0.018). Six (1%) local chest wall recurrences occurred during the follow-up period, none of which involved the nipple-areolar complex. Four patients (1%) suffered a distant recurrence. Conclusions: Most NSM performed at our institution are in patients with malignancy. The oncologic safety is confirmed by the low locoregional recurrence rate. Tobacco use and adjuvant radiation therapy remain the most significant risk factors for complication, highlighting the need for careful patient selection and patient counseling regarding modifiable risk factors and expected outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)535-541
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American College of Surgeons
Volume230
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2020

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