The expression of a gene, designated as Retroviral insertion site (Ris)2, was activated by retroviral DNA integration in an immortalized primitive erythroid cell line, EB-PE. Ris2 was also expressed at high levels in all human tumor cell lines analysed. Consistently, NIH3T3 fibroblasts overexpressing Ris2 formed tumors in Rag2-/- mice when injected subcutaneously. The putative RIS2 protein shows a high sequence similarity to Xenopus CDT1, Drosophila DUP, and human CDT1, a newly identified DNA replication licensing protein, suggesting that Ris2 is a mouse homologue of CDT1. Cells overexpressing Ris2/Cdt1 exhibited a quicker entry into S phase when released from serum starvation compared to controls. Our results suggest that CDT1, an essential licensing protein for DNA replication, can function as an oncogene in mammals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1150-1158
Number of pages9
Issue number8
StatePublished - Feb 14 2002


  • CDT1
  • Oncogene
  • Retroviral insertional activation


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