Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged into the human population in late 2019 and caused the global COVID-19 pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 has spread to more than 215 countries and infected many millions of people. Despite the introduction of numerous governmental and public health measures to control disease spread, infections continue at an unabated pace, suggesting that effective vaccines and antiviral drugs will be required to curtail disease, end the pandemic, and restore societal norms. Here, we review the current developments in antibody and vaccine countermeasures to limit or prevent disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)70-85
Number of pages16
StatePublished - May 2021


  • Antibody
  • COVID-19
  • Immunity
  • Pathogenesis
  • Protection
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Therapy
  • Vaccines


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