Venipuncture and intravenous cannulation are among the most common and widespread medical procedures performed on children today. Therefore, effective treatment of venous access pain can benefit from an integrated systems approach that enlists multiple players in the health care system. By using case studies that analyze this issue from the perspective of the nurse, the physician, the pharmacist, and the child life specialist, this article illustrates how multidisciplinary programs designed to manage needle pain have been developed successfully in several institutions. Common themes that arise from these case studies include the importance of a multidis- ciplinary evidence-based approach to advocate change;a system-wide protocol for the administration of local anesthetics; convenient access to topical local anesthetics; department and hospital-wide support for educational efforts, including training in nonpharmacologic techniques used by child life specialists;and ongoing quantification of the overall success of any program. Implementation of these strategies can result in significant improvements in the pediatric venous access experience.
- Behavioral medicine
- Institutional management teams
- Local anesthetics
- Outcome assessment
- Peripheral cannulation