Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is a type of heart-lung bypass commonly used to support neonates with life-threatening respiratory or cardiac failure. These patients are among the most critically ill patients in the neonatal intensive care unit and are at significant nutritional risk. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of literature regarding guidelines for nutrition support of the neonatal ECLS patient. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the indications, techniques, and complications of ECLS and to address the approach to nutrition support of these patients. Emphasis will be placed on issues unique to the neonatal ECLS patient.