X-ray-induced expression of inflammatory mediators has been proposed to contribute to radiation injury in normal tissues. Radiation-inducible inflammatory mediators include the cell adhesion molecule (CAM) E-selectin and the intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1. Nuclear factor (NF)κB is activated by X-rays and may participate in the transcriptional regulation of each of these inflammatory mediators. To determine whether NFκB inhibition abrogates X-ray induction of inflammatory mediators, we used two experimental approaches including NFKB inhibitory drugs and a dominant negative genetic construct. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human microvascular endothelial cells were treated with the NFκB inhibitors ALLN, PDTC, NAC, and MG132. After irradiation, E-selectin or ICAM-1 was measured by fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis. E-selectin and ICAM-1 expression was measured by use of immunofluorescence and fluorescence- activated cell-sorting analysis. E-selectin expression increased 7-fold, and ICAM-1 expression increased 4-fold after irradiation. All of the inhibitors attenuated E-selectin expression after irradiation. ALLN and MG132 attenuated radiation-induced ICAM expression. However, PDTC and NAC induced increased expression of ICAM-1 in HUVECs. Inhibition of X-ray induction of ICAM by these agents could not be demonstrated. In separate experiments, the NFκB dominant negative genetic construct was cotransfected with the promoter- reporter constructs by means of Lipofectin reagent. The ICAM promoter- reporter construct consists of the 1.2-kb segment of the human ICAM promoter upstream of the transcriptional start site linked to the luciferase reporter gene (pGL.FL-Luc). The E-selectin promoter-reporter construct consists of 525 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site of the human E-selectin promoter linked to the human growth hormone reporter gene (pE525-GH). Endothelial cells transfected with the ICAM-1 promoter-reporter construct showed a 3-fold induction after irradiation. Likewise, cells transfected with pE525-GH showed a 7-fold induction after irradiation. When cotransfected with the CAM reporter-promoter constructs, the NFκB dominant negative genetic construct abolished X-ray-induced transcriptional activation of the E- selectin and ICAM-1 promoters. NFκB inhibition is, therefore, a means of abrogating radiation-induced expression of CAMs.
|Number of pages||5|
|State||Published - Dec 1 1998|