Mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase RET are associated with congenital anomalies of kidneys or urinary tract (CAKUT). RET tyrosine Y1015 is the docking site for PLCγ, a major regulator of RET signaling. Abrogating signaling via Y1015 causes CAKUT that are markedly different than renal agenesis in Ret-null or RetY1062F mutant mice. We performed analysis of Y1015F mutant upper and lower urinary tracts in mice to delineate its molecular and developmental roles during early urinary tract formation. We found that the degeneration of the common nephric ducts (CND), the caudal-most Wolffian duct (WD) segment, depends on Y1015 signals. The CNDs in Y1015F mutants persist owing to increased proliferation and reduced apoptosis, and showed abundance of phospho-ERK-positive cells. In the upper urinary tract, the Y1015 signals are required for proper patterning of the mesonephros and metanephros. Timely regression of mesonephric mesenchyme and proper demarcation of mesonephric and metanephric mesenchyme from the WD depends on RetY1015 signaling. We show that the mechanism of de novo ectopic budding is via increased ERK activity due to abnormal mesenchymal GDNF expression. Although reduction in GDNF dosage improved CAKUT it did not affect delayed mesenchyme regression. Experiments using whole-mount immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and explants cultures of early embryos with ERK-specific inhibitors suggest an imbalance between increased proliferation, decreased apoptosis and increased ERK activity as a mechanism for WD defects in RetY1015F mice. Our work demonstrates novel inhibitory roles of RetY1015 and provides a possible mechanistic explanation for some of the confounding broad range phenotypes in individuals with CAKUT.
- Ureter development