Norovirus (NoV) infection is the leading cause of epidemic gastroenteritis globally, and can lead to detrimental chronic infection in immunocompromised hosts. Despite its prevalence as a cause of diarrheal illness, the study of human NoVs (HNoVs) has historically been limited by a paucity of models. The use of murine NoV (MNoV) to interrogate mechanisms of host control of viral infection has facilitated the exploration of different genetic mouse models, revealing roles for both innate and adaptive immunity in viral regulation. MNoV studies have also recently identified important interactions between the commensal microbiota and NoV with clear extensions to HNoVs. In this review, we discuss the most current understanding of how the host, the microbiome, and their interactions regulate NoV infections.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1047-1059
Number of pages13
JournalTrends in Molecular Medicine
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2016


  • immunity
  • microbiome
  • microbiota
  • norovirus


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