Normative PROMIS Scores in Healthy Collegiate Athletes: Establishing a Target for Return to Function in the Young Adult Athlete

Arya Minaie, David L. Bernholt, Andrew M. Block, Ronak M. Patel, Rick W. Wright, Matthew J. Matava, Jeffrey J. Nepple

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) computer-adaptive testing (CAT) has been shown to be a valid and reliable means of assessing patient-reported outcomes. However, normal scores and distributions for a subset of a healthy young athletic population have not been established. Purpose: To establish normative PROMIS scores for the domains of Physical Function (PF-CAT), Mobility (M-CAT), Upper Extremity Function (UE-CAT), and Pain Interference (PI-CAT) and determine the frequency of floor and ceiling effects in a population of healthy collegiate athletes. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Healthy collegiate athletes (18-23 years of age) were prospectively enrolled to complete the 4 PROMIS CAT domains. Additionally, the athletes provided information regarding their age, sex, and sport(s). Mean scores (±SD) and identification of ceiling or floor effects were calculated. Ceiling and floor effects were considered significant if >15% of the participants obtained the highest or lowest possible score on a domain. Results: A total of 194 healthy athletes (mean age, 19.1 years) were included in the study: 118 (60.8%) men and 76 (39.2%) women. Mean scores were 62.9 ± 6.7 for PF-CAT, 58.2 ± 4.1 for M-CAT, 57.4 ± 5.8 for UE-CAT, and 43.2 ± 6.2 for PI-CAT. Distributions of scores for M-CAT and UE-CAT indicated strong ceiling effects by 77.3% and 66.0% of the participants, respectively. In healthy athletes, the PF-CAT differed most from the expected population-based mean score (50), with the mean being >1 SD above (62.9), without a ceiling effect observed. There were no significant sex- or age-based differences on any of the PROMIS domain scores. Conclusion: Healthy collegiate athletes scored nearly 1 SD from population-based means for all of the domains tested. M-CAT and UE-CAT demonstrated ceiling effects in more than two-thirds of healthy athletes, which may limit their utility in this population. The PF-CAT did not demonstrate floor or ceiling effects and demonstrated differences in a young adult athletic population from the population mean. The mean PF-CAT score of 62.9 can represent a target for return of function in injured athletes.

Original languageEnglish
JournalOrthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Volume9
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 2021

Keywords

  • PROMIS
  • Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System
  • pain interference
  • physical function
  • upper extremity

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