Nonpharmacologic Techniques for Distress Reduction During Emergency Medical Care: A Review

Charles Eldridge, Robert Kennedy

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


When pain is effectively managed, distress in children undergoing Emergency Department procedures is often due to anxiety and fear. This distress can be caused by many factors including being in an unfamiliar environment, exposed to strangers, not knowing what to expect or anticipation based upon previous painful experiences. This article reviews some of the many non-pharmacological developmentally-based strategies that can be implemented in the emergency department to reduce a child's distress. These techniques can help improve treatment and procedural success, and ultimately create a more satisfying experience for the patient, family and medical team.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)244-250
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2010


  • Anxiety
  • Child life
  • Cognitive-behavioral
  • Distraction
  • Distress
  • Family presence
  • Guided-imagery
  • Pain
  • Pediatric


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