Noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR) methods have been explored to provide quantitative measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and oxygen metabolic index (OMI = CBF × OEF). In this study, we sought to evaluate whether MR measured OEF, CBF, and OMI can consistently detect the expected physiological changes in humans under normal and hyperoxic hypercapnic conditions. Nine healthy human subjects were scanned while breathing through a mask, alternating inhaled gas in a sequential order as room air, carbogen (3% CO 2 mixed with 97% O 2), room air, carbogen, and room air. OEF, CBF, and OMI were obtained from the whole brain, gray matter (GM), and white matter (WM) at each gas inhalation state. Similar to previous positron emission tomography findings, our study consistently demonstrated a 10-12% decrease in OEF with a 10% increase of CBF and a stable OMI during carbogen inhalation. Moreover, GM/WM ratio in CBF and OMI remained constant during air and carbogen breathing. In addition, OEF, CBF, and OMI were highly reproducible if the same inhaled gas was used. In summary, our results demonstrate that noninvasive MR measurements can provide reproducible measurements of OEF, CBF, and OMI in normal subjects under normal and altered physiological conditions.
- Arterial spin labeling
- Asymmetric spin echo
- Cerebral blood flow
- MR measured oxygen metabolic index
- Oxygen extraction fraction