Noncontact endocardial mapping: Reconstruction of electrograms and isochrones from intracavitary probe potentials

Zhiwei W. Liu, Ping Jia, Philip R. Ershler, Bruno Taccardi, Robert L. Lux, Dirar S. Khoury, Yoram Rudy

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34 Scopus citations


Introduction: Mapping endocardial activation and repolarization processes is critical to the study of arrhythmias and selection of therapeutic procedures. Previously, we developed methodology for reconstructing endocardial potentials from potentials measured with a noncontact, intracavitary probe. This study further develops and evaluates the ability of the approach to provide detailed information on the spatiotemporal characteristics of the activation process. Specifically, we reconstructed endocardial electrograms and isochrones throughout the activation process over the entire endocardium during a single beat. Methods and Results: Cavity potentials were measured with a 65-electrode probe placed inside an isolated canine left ventricle. Endocardial potentials were measured simultaneously using 52 electrodes. Potentials were acquired during subendocardial pacing from different locations. Computed electrograms at various sites closely resemble the measured electrograms (correlation coefficient > 0.9 at 60% of the electrodes). Computed isochrones locate subendocardial pacing sites with 10-mm accuracy. Two pacing sites, 17 mm apart, were resolved. Critical regions, such as areas of isochrone crowding, were accurately reconstructed. Conclusions: Results indicate the applicability of the approach to mapping the cardiac excitation process on a beat-by-beat basis without occluding the ventricle. The ability of locating electrical events (e.g., single or multiple initiation sites) is demonstrated. Importantly, the method is shown to be capable of reconstructing electrograms over the entire endocardium and determining nonuniformities of activation spread (e.g., areas of slow conduction). These capabilities are important to clinical application in the electrophysiology laboratory and experimental studies of arrhythmias in the intact animal.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)415-431
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of cardiovascular electrophysiology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1997


  • electrograms
  • endocardial mapping
  • endocardial potentials
  • inverse problem
  • isochrones


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