Nitric oxide-mediated nitrosation of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline potentiated by hemin and myeloperoxidase

Vijaya M. Lakshmi, Fong Fu Hsu, Terry V. Zenser

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19 Scopus citations


N-Nitrosamines formed by nitrosation of heterocyclic amines might initiate colon cancer in individuals consuming well-done red meat diets and with inflammatory conditions in their colon. This study investigates nitric oxide (NO)-mediated nitrosation of 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and the influence of dietary (hemin) and inflammatory [NO, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and H 2O 2] components on nitrosation. Using the NO donor spermine NONOate (1.2 μM NO/min) at pH 7.4 with 0.005 mM MeIQx, a product due to NO autoxidation was at the limit of detection (1% of total radioactivity recovered by HPLC). Product formation increased 13- or 16-fold in the presence of 10 μM hemin or 85 nM MPO, respectively, with an in situ system for generating H 2O 2 (glucose oxidase/glucose). The nitrosation product and its chloro derivative were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and the product was determined to be 2-nitrosoamino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (N-NO-MeIQx). Nitrosation by NO autoxidation was only detected at ≥1.2 μM NO/min and was not affected by H202. Investigations with hemin determined minimum effective components necessary for potentiation: 1 μM hemin, 1 μM H 2O 2/min, and 0.012 μM NO/min. The reactive nitrogen oxygen species (RNOS) produced by hemin and MPO had a 4- and 3-fold, respectively, greater affinity for MeIQx than those produced by NO autoxidation. Test agents were used to characterize nitrosation. Results with catalase, SOD, azide, and NADH are consistent with multiple RNOS, the lack of peroxynitrite involvement in nitrosation, and peroxidatic potentiation by oxidative nitrosylation rather than nitrosation. Using phorbol ester stimulated human neutrophils, the formation of N-NO-MeIQx and its modification by test agents was consistent with MPO and not peroxynitrite. Thus, nitrosation of MeIQx and its potentiation by hemin and MPO provide a mechanism by which well-done red meat consumption and inflammation can generate N-nitroso compounds and initiate colon cancer under inflammatory conditions, such as colitis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1038-1047
Number of pages10
JournalChemical Research in Toxicology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2005


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