Nirmatrelvir and risk of hospital admission or death in adults with covid-19: emulation of a randomized target trial using electronic health records

Yan Xie, Benjamin Bowe, Ziyad Al-Aly

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17 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective To estimate the effectiveness of nirmatrelvir, compared with no treatment, in reducing admission to hospital or death at 30 days in people infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus and at risk of developing severe disease, according to vaccination status and history of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Design Emulation of a randomized target trial with electronic health records. setting Healthcare databases of the US Department of Veterans Affairs ParticiPants 256 288 participants with a SARS-CoV-2 positive test result and at least one risk factor for developing severe covid-19 disease, between 3 January and 30 November 2022. 31 524 were treated with nirmatrelvir within five days of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 224 764 received no treatment. Main OutcOMe Measures The effectiveness of starting nirmatrelvir within five days of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result versus no treatment in reducing the risk of admission to hospital or death at 30 days was estimated in those who were not vaccinated, in those who received one or two doses of vaccine, and those who received a vaccine booster and, separately, in participants with a primary SARS-CoV-2 infection or reinfection. The inverse probability weighting method was used to balance personal and health characteristics between the groups. Relative risk and absolute risk reduction were computed from cumulative incidence at 30 days, estimated by weighted Kaplan-Meier estimator. results Among people who were not vaccinated (n=76 763; 5338 nirmatrelvir and 71 425 no treatment), compared with no treatment, the relative risk of nirmatrelvir in reducing admission to hospital or death at 30 days was 0.60 (95% confidence interval 0.50 to 0.71); the absolute risk reduction was 1.83% (95% confidence interval 1.29% to 2.49%). The relative risk and absolute risk reduction, compared with no treatment, were 0.65 (0.57 to 0.74) and 1.27% (0.90% to 1.61%), respectively, in people who received one or two doses of vaccine (n=84 620; 7989 nirmatrelvir and 76 631 no treatment); 0.64 (0.58 to 0.71) and 1.05% (0.85% to 1.27%) in individuals who received a booster dose of vaccine (n=94 905; 18 197 nirmatrelvir and 76 708 no treatment); 0.61 (0.57 to 0.65) and 1.36% (1.19% to 1.53%) in participants with a primary SARS-CoV-2 infection (n=228 081; 26 350 nirmatrelvir and 201 731 no treatment); and 0.74 (0.63 to 0.87) and 0.79% (0.36% to 1.18%) in participants who were reinfected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus (n=28 207; 5174 nirmatrelvir and 23 033 no treatment). Nirmatrelvir was associated with a reduced risk of admission to hospital or death in those aged ≤65 years and > 65 years; in men and women; in black and white participants; in those with 1-2, 3-4, and ≥5 risk factors for progression to severe covid-19 illness; and in those infected during the omicron BA.1 or BA.2 predominant era, and the BA.5 predominant era. cOnclusiOns In people with SARS-CoV-2 infection who were at risk of developing severe disease, compared with no treatment, nirmatrelvir was associated with a reduced risk of admission to hospital or death at 30 days in people who were not vaccinated, vaccinated, and had received a booster vaccine, and in those with a primary SARS-CoV-2 infection and reinfection.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere073312
JournalBMJ
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 11 2023

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